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Kettering University

Verified 501(c)(3) Non-Profit


Project description
Energy is the critical element of sustainable development. Half of the total amount of the world’s energy consumption occurs in industry; In the United States, the industrial sector consumes approximately one-third of total delivered amount of energy.* Scarcity of natural resources, new governmental policies along with increasing public awareness towards environmental sustainability, and the rises of utility charges make energy consumption reduction a critical challenge for industrial facilities.
This research mainly focuses on electricity consumption in manufacturing sector. Industrial facilities are charged for their electricity demand (kW) as well as the actual amount of energy consumed (kWH). Actual energy consumption charges are mostly determined based on a Time-of-Use policy, where higher charges are applied during peak hours to alleviate the consumption and enhance the reliability of supply. Demand charge is calculated based on the highest average amount of consumed power over any 15-minute period during a billing cycle and represents a significant percentage on utility bills for the industrial users.
In a production system, machineries may run idle or switch to low-energy consumption modes (standby) during the inter-arrival period between consecutive products and a significant amount of energy is wasted when the machine is idle. Literature studies show that 85.2% of the total amount of energy of a machining process is consumed to run the auxiliary components even when the machine is in idle mode. While switching to low energy consumption modes when there is no product to process seems an energy efficient approach, it is crucial to consider that the switching back to processing mode leads to an increase in machine’s energy demand and can impose significant charges to the company and demand to the electricity network. Therefore, scheduling the production to prevent the machine idle time between consecutive products and eliminate the need of switching between modes can save significant amount of energy if planned correctly.
Determining an optimal production planning system with the goal of energy saving via efficient scheduling of the production processes and machines running plans is the main goal of this research which is rarely studied before, and will be investigated based on the findings of this proposal. The ultimate objective of this research is to minimize energy consumption and the associated costs in a manufacturing facility while minimizing total production time and machine failure probability. This objective is achieved optimizing jobs processing order and machine operating schedules.
As a result of this proposal, fundamental studies will be conducted by the student to develop an infrastructure to achieve the following goals:

  • To have a better understanding about energy demand concept and electricity cost calculation structure
  • To study the existing literature on production planning and scheduling in energy efficient manufacturing systems and identify the pros and cons of the existing studies
  • To study the mutual impact of machine operating mode (processing and idle modes) on energy consumption and machine reliability


Farnaz Ghazi-Nezami is an Assistant Professor in the Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Department at Kettering University. She received her Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering from the Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Department at Wichita State University. Dr. Ghazi-Nezami is a Certified Six Sigma Green Belt (CSSGB) and has received the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) certification. She has several years of working experience in industry and service sector. Her research interests include energy efficient manufacturing systems, sustainability, operations management, integrated production-maintenance planning and engineering education.
For this project, an undergraduate (junior or senior) student will be hired for one term and the funding will be used to cover the student’s stipend.

Expected project outcomes
As a result of this project, the student will gain a deep understanding about the following concepts:

  • energy efficient manufacturing systems
  • energy saving through operations management
  • energy pricing, energy demand, and consumption and demand energy charges
  • the impact of machines operating modes such as active or stand-by modes and turn-on switching on energy consumption and the associate costs

This work will be published as a student report. In addition, the student’s findings will be used as a basis for a higher level of research, which consists of analytical study of the proposed problem, and will be published in the Annual Institute of Industrial Engineers (IIE) Conference 2016.

A copy of student’s report will be presented to the donors. The final presentation material for the conference will be also available to the funders once the main research is completed.
Supplies (list any items above $500. Smaller items can be combined as "General Supplies"):
Student stipend(s) (numbers of students and number of weeks):
1 student * 10 weeks * 20hrs/week * $16/hr = $ 3,200

TOTAL: $ 3,200
TOTAL amount to raise on CREU: $ 3,200

CREU recommends this project at the recomended level

Reviewer Comments

" The proposed plan to look at energy saving by looking at the production process and machine running plan is a viable project. The learning objectives of the proposal for the student are feasible."

" Energy consumption/demand is very equipment dependent. The proposal would be strengthened if it identified a specific manufacturing process and equipment."


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